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Periodontics and Periodontal Surgery

A lasting beautiful smile requires more than healthy teeth

At least as important are healthy gums. However, healthy gums are not self-evident, and periodontal disease ("gum disease") is the biggest threat for the foundation of the teeth. During adulthood more teeth are lost due periodontal disease than due to caries.

Periodontitis: Cause and Treatment

Periodontities is the medical term to describe inflammation of the peridontium.

It is usually caused by plaque but, in rare cases, can also manifest itself due to systemic disease or a weakened immune system. Bacterial plaque (pictured above left) often accumulate due to incorrect or inadequate dental hygiene. Pathogens colonize the gingival pocket and spread deeper and deeper (top right). This leads to a local inflammation with a tendency to bleeding gums as well as redness, swelling and receding of the gums (bottom left).

Later on, so-called pockets evolve between teeth and gums where the bacteria can multiply and attack the bone. At this stage, bacterial deposits form also on the root surfaces of the tooth (bottom right). The entire parodontium is weakened and, as a result, the tooth becomes loose in the jaw bone andin the worst case scenario, falls out. In addition, the bacteria can enter other areas of the body throught the tooth bed and promote serious illnesses such as heart attacks, strokes and diabetes.

Therefore, inflammatory gum disease should always be treated. At the initial stage, a thorough, professional tooth cleaning with the removal of all plaque and deposits is usually sufficient.

Guided tissue regeneration: Curettage , Flap procedures

In advanced periodontitis, the thorough and gentle cleaning of tooth root surfaces and pockets becomes necessary. The teeth will be clean using ultrasound and hand instruments, the parodontium gets the chance to regenerate. For this to happen, the removal of all plaque and bacterial deposits is absolutely necessary (see Profesional teeth cleaning)!

In addition, we can perform microsurgical procedures to open up the gingiva and remove the bacterial deposits under the gums. At the same time degenerated bone tissue can be built up with replacement material. These methods are also referred to as "Guided Tissue Generation" or GTR.

Moreover, modern lab tests allow the accurate identification of the bacteria, allowing a targeted supplemental treatment with antibiotics.

Aesthetic Reconstruction of the Gingiva

As a complementary aesthetic measure, we can reconstruct recessed gums by transplanting gingiva from other areas of the mouth.